The total amount of value in Society C is greater than that in Society A where the distribution is even. Even rule utilitarianism must approve this distribution --even slavery, if this is what is involved. Example slightly modified from B.
Bentham Bentham equated happiness with pleasure and the absence of pain. This was an empirical observation - people desire pleasure and seek to avoid pain.
His scientific mind led him to believe that the study of ethics could be undertaken in a practical way, carefully measuring the possible consequences or outcomes of an action before deciding which choice to take.
The Hedonic Calculus Remoteness — how near it is Purity — how free from pain it is Richness — to what extent it will lead to other pleasures Intensity — how powerful it is Certainty — how likely it is to result Extent — how many people it affects Duration — how long it lasts John Stuart Mill Mill believed that quality was more important than quantity when it came to pleasure.
This deals with the problem of sadistic torturers, as their pleasure is of a significantly lower kind. This is because in any given situation, the pregnant woman and her unborn child have a greater potential for future happiness than any individual involved in the crash.
This rule is only a guideline, and should be discarded if doing so will bring about more happiness e. Another is that people need rules - if you allow people to lie, steal etc. On the plus side, it has most integrity, as it allows you to stick with the greatest happiness principle unswervingly — simply do whatever brings the most happiness in any given situation.
Rule Utilitarianism Some general principles are formulated. From these, certain actions will be ruled out as unacceptable. The principle of utility is therefore applied to a rule, so the rule will hold if in general following it leads to greater happiness.
This means that in an individual case, even though an injustice might bring about greater happiness, if it goes against the general principle that injustice tends to lead to misery and a reduction in happiness, it is deemed wrong. Bentham is generally seen as an Act Utilitarian, as the Greatest Happiness Principle seems to demand.
As we saw, he is open to the criticism that Utilitarianism goes against justice and human rights, as it allows abuses of rights if they bring enough happiness. Mill may be seen as a Rule Utilitarian, as he clearly thinks certain rules have a Utilitarian justification. If the objector goes on to ask, why it ought?
I can give him no other reason than general utility. Elsewhere in the book, Mill says: Peter Vardy says this is how most people view Mill. Mill strongly believed that the individual is sovereign over himself, which is an unusual principle for a Utilitarian!DISCLAIMER: heartoftexashop.com is an academic assistance company that provides services such as Essays, Term papers, Research Papers, Thesis Papers, Dissertations, Reports, Reviews and many more.
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AQA A2 Philosophy 2 PHLS2 - 05 Jun [Exam Discussion » AQA RS - Utilitarianism and Situation Ethics! Hedonism and utilitarianism are similar in their evaluation of the goal of moral behaviour as some version of pleasure or happiness and the minimization of its opposite.
They can both view pleasure or happiness as simple and immediate, or complex and matured.
Where they differ is the scope of. Explain the main strengths of Mill's Utilitarianism Summary. United Kingdom 0 (0) Explain the main strengths of Mill's Utilitarianism An essay based on a past OCR paper.
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Add to cart. Apply Jeremy Bentham's Act Utilitarianism to a complicated real life problem (such as whether or not the UK should legalise the death penalty) and many problems arise that need to be resolved. Such is the importance and influence of Bentham’s work that Martin (, p.
) suggests the current modern welfare state can be linked back directly to Bentham and his thoughts on utilitarianism.