Life - from Politics to Philosophy Plato was born in Athens in c. Until his mid-twenties, Athens was involved in a long and disastrous military conflict with Sparta, known as the Peloponnesian War. But this never happened.
But removing library material solely on the basis of its content may amount to censorship in violation of the First Amendment. Publicly funded libraries play an important role in facilitating free and open access to information. In the American Library Association promulgated the Library Bill of Rights, which affirms the principle that libraries protect the First Amendment and intellectual freedom.
Setting library policy includes deciding what material to include in the collection; developing guidelines on library Internet use; and protecting patron confidentiality.
Librarians and their governing boards have wide discretion when selecting library material. Once material is included in a collection it can be removed for several reasons. For example, librarians legitimately can remove outdated, damaged, or unused material. These decisions are content-neutral.
Removing library material solely on the basis of its content may amount to censorship in violation of the First Amendment.
Public school libraries are particularly vulnerable to challenges regarding library material because schools educate children and instill in them community values. Public libraries also face these challenges, but to a much lesser extent. Members of a community can object to library material they consider inappropriate on the basis of their religious, political, or other beliefs.
Most challenges are made by those opposed to a specific book, such as The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, or a category of subject matter, such as homosexuality. The most frequent challenges are from parents, and the most frequent reasons for these challenges are claims that the material either is sexually explicit or contains obscene or offensive language to which they do not want their children exposed.
However, there are legal precedents for resolving these challenges. Picoa plurality of Supreme Court justices affirmed that students have a First Amendment right to receive information and school boards cannot remove books from school libraries for political reasons.
It is expensive, and many libraries must rely on federal funding to purchase and install computers and to maintain Internet access. Limited physical space can force libraries to place Internet access computers in areas where children can view inappropriate material that adults have a First Amendment right to access.
Public officials have the power to regulate library Internet use to protect minors from viewing inappropriate material, but doing so entails placing content-based restrictions on Internet use.
At the end of21 states had enacted Internet filtering laws that apply to public schools and libraries.
These laws vary in their scope and content see Web site of the National Conference of State Legislatures. Congress has also enacted several laws to protect minors from accessing indecent and inappropriate material via the Internet.
To pass First Amendment muster, these content-based restrictions must be narrowly tailored to serve a legitimate government interest. Not all laws have passed this test. However, in United States v. But sometimes such expectation of privacy can conflict with government attempts to protect national security.
Code, sectiongrants the Federal Bureau of Investigation authority to issue national security letters requiring the recipients including corporations, doctors, or libraries to turn over business, medical, and other personal information pertaining to their clients.Giuseppe Garibaldi, (born July 4, , Nice, French Empire [now in France]—died June 2, , Caprera, Italy), Italian patriot and soldier of the Risorgimento, a republican who, through his conquest of Sicily and Naples with his guerrilla Redshirts, contributed to the achievement of Italian unification under the royal house of Savoy.
This point is important too: too often on the internet "freedom of speech" is used as a defense mechanism to deflect criticism, when in reality it was framed in order to promote self-policing and.
Liberalism is a political and economic doctrine that emphasizes individual autonomy, equality of opportunity, and the protection of individual rights (primarily to life, liberty, and property), originally against the state and later against both the state and private economic actors, including businesses.
The Internet in Egypt is an important part of daily life, as a majority of the population has access to Internet, via smartphones, Internet cafes, or at home. Broadband Internet access via ADSL is widespread.
About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Giuseppe Garibaldi, (born July 4, , Nice, French Empire [now in France]—died June 2, , Caprera, Italy), Italian patriot and soldier of the Risorgimento, a republican who, through his conquest of Sicily and Naples with his guerrilla Redshirts, contributed to the achievement of Italian unification under the royal house of Savoy. During World War Ⅱ, the U.S. income tax expanded its reach. Formerly a tax that targeted the well-to-do, it became a tax on income-earners in general. In order to help this go smoothly, the government enlisted popular entertainers to create pro-tax propaganda.
However, Internet censorship and surveillance was severe under the rule of Hosni Mubarak, culminating in a total shutdown of the Internet in Egypt during the Revolution. Econ Professor Explains to Occupy Wall Street Crowd How Marxist America Will Work - Redstate - Nearly a year ago, union appointees within the Obama Labor Department launched their.
Other observers find the amount -- and, above all, the kind of speech -- that the Internet has stimulated offensive or frightening.
Pornography, hate speech, lurid threats -- these flourish alongside debates over the future of the Democratic Party and exchanges of views concerning flyfishing in Patagonia.